discussion board post response

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It look long but these are just responses!These are 3 student responses that needs to be responded to. The response must be 100 words. Please use all references!

Victoria Post

Part I

As we learned in the last module the hippocampus plays an important role in memory formation. Thus, it makes perfect sense that it would be associated with contextual fear conditioning. Contextual fear conditioning relies on the ability to remember the context that sparked fear. When a patient has bilateral hippocampal lesions, it blocks the development of a fear response to the context (Pinel,2018).

The best example of contextual fear conditioning that I can extrapolate from my life experiences is the fear that sets in as I’m driving next to a semi or concrete barrier. The conditioning of this fear began when I was kid and the numerous accidents that occurred on a specific curve on a hill that earned the nickname “Deadman’s hill”. It made me nervous to drive next to semis especially as some friends and family members often had to clean up the accidents and would talk about them at home. Reinforcement of this fear occurred when I was involved in my own accident as a teenager that involved being ran into a concrete barrier on the highway. The accident could have been significantly worse than it was but now when driving I will drive on the side of the road that places the most distance from my door and the barrier or semi. I also adjust my driving to not be next to a semi around curves whether that means slowing down so I can get behind the semi and allow other cars to pass or speeding up to pass them before the curve.

Part II

Two treatments for depression that utilize brain stimulation not listed in the book are electroconvulsive therapy and transcranial direct current stimulation. The effects of electroconvulsive therapy in older patients has been a concern for providers due to the possible negative impact on neurocognitive functioning. Studies have concluded that the deleterious cognitive effects of electroconvulsive therapy in late-life depression are transient and limited but can be increased with bilateral stimulation. Transcranial direct current stimulation involves applying a small electrical current to the head utilizing electrodes placed on the skin rather than implanted into the body as seen with deep brain stimulation (Wong, et al.,2019). The currents sent through the electrodes don’t evoke action potentials themselves but change the neural activity of the brain by switching cortical activity from a state of excitability to a state of inhibition. Transcranial direct current stimulation has proven to be effective in reducing the depressive severity and the remission rates in patients. The effects of Transcranial direct current stimulation have shown sustained effects for up to three months while improving overall cognitive functioning and in verbal fluency (Wong, et al.,2019). Transcranial direct current stimulation has however shown low spatial resolution and difficulty in defining localization of the electrodes.

Mackenzie post

Part I: Describe the role of the hippocampus in contextual fear conditioning.

Can you think of an instance where you have been subjected to contextual fear conditioning? Describe that instance. In your answer, describe the role of the hippocampus in contextual fear conditioning.

Contextual fear conditioning is a phenomenon that occurs when a nonthreatening environment elicits a fearful response. This occurs when there is repeated exposure to an object during a frightening situation and the surroundings become associated with the emotional response (Pinel 2014). I have not experienced contextual conditioning in the sense of an environment. I have experienced fear conditioning after a car accident I was involved in. The car I was in was a white Nissan, and ever since the accident I experience a physiological response when I encounter a vehicle of the same make, model, and color. The hippocampus is responsible for memory and spatial understanding and is a key affected area during contextual fear conditioning. The hippocampus creates a misattributed fear for the context of the stimuli instead of the stimuli itself (Pinel 2014). Research has also noted the potential role of the hippocampus in post-traumatic stress disorder since contextual stimuli can often prompt episodes (Chaaya 2018).

Part II: Describe two forms of treatment for depression that utilize brain stimulation.

There are many other treatments for depression that aren’t discussed in this module. Name at least two you know of. What is the evidence for their efficacy? Remember to properly cite and reference your sources in APA format.

One of the various treatments for depression is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). CBT focuses on the core concept of psychological issues being caused by disordered patterns of behavior and how correcting this behavior will assist in recovery (American). CBT allows for patients to be their own harbingers for therapy to facilitate easing depressive behaviors. CBT can be effective when paired with other forms of treatment. CBT modifies behaviors after the onset of the depression whereas medication can assist with biological elements since anti-depressants tend to be only 25% effective when used as a singular treatment (Pinel 2014). Psychodynamic treatment of depression is a combination of any depression treatments to alleviate the symptoms holistically. Psychodynamic treatment can apply CBT, medication, and light therapy approaches to assist a patient diagnosed with depression. Psychodynamic therapy has been demonstrated to have successful outcomes in several clinical roles and practice settings (Busch 2016). Hence, providing a better option for patients than implementing just one form of treatment.

Michael Post

Part I: Describe the role of the hippocampus in contextual fear conditioning.

Can you think of an instance where you have been subjected to contextual fear conditioning? Describe that instance. In your answer, describe the role of the hippocampus in contextual fear conditioning.

Situations surround and instill meaning to events; they are essential for remembering the past, interpreting the present, and anticipating the future. Studies of fear conditioning and extinction suggest that a neural circuit including the hippocampus, amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex is involved in the learning and memory processes that enable context-dependent behavior. Research on the neural mechanisms by which context representations are encoded in the brain largely come from studies of associative learning in both animals and humans. Indications have been made that the hippocampus has a crucial role in tasks involving learning and remembering contexts. The role of the hippocampus in encoding context representations is consistent with the large literature on the role of the hippocampus in spatial representation and navigation. Growing up, I remember my brother experiencing this. One time we were at the grocery store and my brother witnesses another kid throwing a fit because he did not get a candy. After a while, this kid’s parents caved in and got him a candy. My brother figured he would do the same. He did not get the same reaction from my mother. Instead, he got a whooping and did not get the candy he wanted. I believe this was the last time he did that. He knew he would be in trouble if he threw a fit like that again. My brother related the butt whooping to the associated behavior and came to the realization that it was not worth it. One incident conditioned the fear of the whooping in him.

Part II: Describe two forms of treatment for depression that utilize brain stimulation.

There are many other treatments for depression that aren’t discussed in this module. Name at least two you know of. What is the evidence for their efficacy? Remember to properly cite and reference your sources in APA format.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive procedure that uses magnetic fields to stimulate nerve cells in the brain to improve symptoms of depression. TMS is used when other depression treatments do not work. Depression is a curable condition, but for some people, standard treatments are not effective. Repetitive TMS is used when treatments such as medications and talk therapy (psychotherapy) do not work. If rTMS works, depression symptoms may improve or go away completely. Symptom relief may take a few weeks of treatment. The effectiveness of rTMS may improve as researchers learn more about techniques, the number of stimulations required and the best sites on the brain to stimulate.

Deep brain stimulation, or D.B.S., has been performed for decades to help people control the tremors of Parkinson’s disease. In treating depression, surgeons thread an electrode into an area of the brain that sits beneath the crown of the head which is known to be especially active in people with severe depression. Running electrical current into that region, known as Brodmann Area 25, successfully shuts down its activity, resulting in relief of depression symptoms in many patients. The electrode is connected to a battery that is embedded in the chest. The procedure involves a single surgery; the implant provides continuous current from then on.

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