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Types of Critical Infrastructure Data Collection for Pavement and Storm Water Management Facilities
Stormwater management involves the reduction of runoff of rainwater into the urban areas. It incorporates the improvement of water quality. In the case of long and heavy rain, urban areas face challenges like flooding. This is because of siltation that causes the blockage of drainage systems and sewer systems. The purpose of stormwater management is removing pollutants and detaining stormwater. Therefore, critical infrastructure plays a vital role in managing this. Such support include culverts, gutters, sewers, piped drainage, among others.
Providing sufficient drainage for stormwater is a significant factor in designing urban roads. Drainage facilities on the streets should be adequately equipped to allow the flow of water from pavement surfaces. Thus, green infrastructure and stormwater design are developed. It is capable of reusing the stormwater, thus maintaining and restoring the natural hydrology. The strategy is capable of building successful programs and policies through various objectives (Hopkins, Grimm & York, 2018). This includes public funding in growing the green stormwater infrastructure. Also, the launching of studies to determine the long term roles that green stormwater infrastructure play.
Data collection is done for supporting network level decision making. The decisions on what information to collect forms the basis of experience. The stormwater management collects data and updates it in central databases. The system-level data collection structure is overhauled every year.
The data is stored in their databases with a GIS platform (Besha & Alemayehu, 2016). The pavement data is kept in separate databases. This feeds the central databases every year. The precision required for the different information things has not been tended to unbiasedly. Nonetheless, there are excellent quality confirmation strategies set up to check the data gathered and contribution to the framework.
Besha, K. Z., & Alemayehu, A. A. (2016). Assessment of Road and Surface Water Drainage Condition in Urban Ethiopia, with Special Reference of Assosa Town. European Academic Research, 4, 1966-1991.
Hopkins, K. G., Grimm, N. B., & York, A. M. (2018). Influence of governance structure on green stormwater infrastructure investment. Environmental Science & Policy, 84, 124-133.
Pavement and storm water management are performed in every locality and should be considered part of our national infrastructure. Pavement programs include everything from re-surfacing a municipal parking lot to building a new interstate. Because pavement results in water runoff, it is typically associated with storm drainage. Storm water management ensures that debris and sediment, such as trash or fertilizer, are not washed into our waterways. Additionally, it is useful in removing large amount of water quickly to avoid flooding, particularly in urban environments that lack natural drainage (EPA, n. d.; Booth & Leavitt, 1999).
Treating storm water properly requires knowing how much water is flowing into the system and a general breakdown of any contaminants that might be contained. As the water will be treated by a wastewater plant, the operator needs to know what quantity of chemicals, such as chlorine, is necessary to return the water safely. Many of the chemical treatments will be applied automatically by devices connected through SCADA systems. Applying a concentration of chemicals in excess of guidelines could result in EPA penalty, environmental harm, and possibly death.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) monitors our streams, rivers, and other bodies of water, for any contaminants that need attention. Some areas, such as Virginia, have enacted restrictions for developers and farmers because of high contamination. The Chesapeake Bay area is under a â€œpollution dietâ€ in order to restore clean and safe water to the area. Restrictions include the reduced use of pesticides and required erosion & sediment control for all development projects with financial penalties levied against violators (EPA, 2010).
Per the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (â€œProgramsâ€, n. d.), some of the contaminents that the department of environmental quality require monitoring include mercury, turbidity, and chlorine. Additionally, they expect that the pH level remain within a small variance of neutral to ensure that natural habitats are not effected, including fish kill. Algae blooms and foul smells are associated with improperly treated water.
Pavement monitoring ensures that roads are being replaced or repaired before becoming a problem. Data for this includes the age of the pavement, the type of base layer, any improvements that have been made, the rate at which potholes are developing, and the level of cracking. As pavement deteriorates, it loses friction as well as the ability to repel water. Combining this information informs the government of the efficiency and durability of the pavement so that capital improvements can be budgeted (US DoT, 2006).
In order to minimize highway congestion and to plan for road expansions, real-time data traffic information is gathered. Data includes the volume of traffic, time spent at traffic signals, slow traffic (e.g. work zones or automobile accident locations). Traffic can be expedited by adjusting traffic signals, changing speed limits, and displaying updated information on digital signs. Obtaining real-time data is key to making minor adjustments that may have greater impact.
Booth, Derek B. & Leavitt, Jennifer (1999) Field Evaluation of Permeable Pavement Systems for Improved Stormwater Management, Journal of the American Planning Association, 65:3, 314-325, DOI: 10.1080/01944369908976060
EPA Facility Stormwater Management. (n.d.). Retrieved November 26, 2019, from https://www.epa.gov/greeningepa/epa-facility-stormwater-management
EPA. (2010). TMDL Exec Summary. 1â€“14. Retrieved from http://www2.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2014-12/documents/bay_tmdl_executive_summary_final_12.29.10_final_1.pdf%5Cnhttp://www2.epa.gov/chesapeake-bay-tmdl/chesapeake-bay-tmdl-document
Programs. (n.d.). Retrieved November 26, 2019, from https://www.deq.virginia.gov/Programs/Water/WaterQualityInformationTMDLs/WaterQualityMonitoring/AnnualWaterQualityMonitoringPlan.aspx
US Department of Transportation, F. H. A. (FHWA). (2006). â€œAsset Management Data Collection for Supporting Decision Processes Asset Management Data Collection for Supporting Decision Processes.â€ 2â€“97. Retrieved from http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/asset/dataintegration/if08018/assetmgmt_web.pdf
For this weekâ€™s discussion we are asked to assess the critical infrastructure data collection of the paving and storm water management systems. In alignment with the text for this week and based on correlation, the first goal in this scenario would be to determine the similarities and data structures evident across the water treatment and natural gas delivery management systems. According to our text, â€œCollecting critical national infrastructure data through the systems risk view focuses on multiple, heterogeneous, geographically distributed systems that are embedded in networks at multiple levels (Amoroso, 2012).â€ With this concept in mind, research shows that four major categories should be addressed.
- Modal View
- Geographic view
- Functional view
- Ownership view
In the modal view, assets should be categorized according to the basis of the system at hand. In this view, asset data can be categorized by interdependencies and supply chain implications that are specific to a particular mode of transportation (Amoroso, 2012). In the case of storm water management and water treatment, there can be some similarities within the data. Both assets have pipes, water collection systems, mechanical systems, chemicals, and design patterns. This data can be used to determine risk factors across both systems. Data can be gathered by state and local government, federal agencies, and subject matter experts to provide a detailed comprehensive data set used to analyze risk.
In the geographic view, data is collected by specific regions and categorized accordingly. This view is different from the modal view as it focuses on specific areas of the system at hand. Asset information can change according to the differences in climate, weather, and population. In regard to paving and storm water management, this view can give a detailed data set based on various parameters. For example, paving might be more difficult and cost intense in the North east part of the United States due to bad weather and large population. In the case of storm water data, information could show critical infrastructure having more effective production in dryer climates such as Arizona. On the other hand, states like Washington could have data showing a more intense need for infrastructure when dealing with storm water management. Correlation of existing data from the water treatment systems could shed some light on trends and risks involved with the water systems.
In the functional view, the focus is on the purpose of the system and what it can deliver. Data is collected on the assets, links, nodes, processes, policies, and emergent properties associated with the function of the system (Amoroso, 2012). In the case of paving, this could include the vehicles used in the paving, materials used in the process, engineering schematics, and proprietary information learned within the field. When considering wastewater management, the functions revolve around collection systems, machinery, piping, and diagrams and blueprints.
In the final category of ownership view, information is collected regarding the ownerâ€™s decision-making process, legal constraints, and policies (Amoroso, 2012). This information is typically targeted and does not include every data set.
According to a report from the Office of the Inspector General, DHS is responsible for leading the national effort to protect national infrastructure (Department of Homeland Security, 2009). In this research, one of the four major mission statements of DHS are protection of these critical sets. To accomplish this daunting task, DHS first has to identify assets, systems, networks, and functions (Department of Homeland Security, 2009). Section 1001 of the Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007 mandates that DHS use and maintain a database to catalog the nationâ€™s critical infrastructure (Department of Homeland Security, 2009).
According to an executive order written by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Aging infrastructure is a significant concern for the utilities, service districts, municipalities, and counties responsible for operating and maintaining stormwater, wastewater, and drinking water (PG Environmental, 2017). These agencies are struggling to maintain and innovate the existing assets in an effective manner. In response drinking water utilities have developed and implemented formal asset management programs (AMPs) to reduce unexpected, expensive, and reactive repairs and increase overall system performance. As the benefits of formal AMPs are becoming more evident, more public and private water utilities are beginning to develop and implement AMPs as a method to proactively address system needs and reduce overall costs (PG Environmental, 2017). These asset management programs have helped water utilities identify relevant data sets to securing the critical national infrastructure.
On a separate note, I work for the Environmental Protection Agency and work directly on two systems that address this weekâ€™s scenario. The first application is called the Vulnerability Self-Assessment Tool (VSAT) and helps water utilities work with their assets and threat pairs to identify treatments and potential upgrades. This application recently went through a regulatory commitment that enforced federal policy to certify that national utilities are taking the necessary steps to combat threats and meet guidelines for the Section 2013 of Americaâ€™s Water Infrastructure Act. The second application is called Creating Resilient Water Utilities (CRWU/CREAT), and it helps utilities face climate and extreme weather events. The application provides detailed analytic tools to generate reports for utilities and give recommendations based on simulated data.
You can visit these applications at:
Amoroso, E. (2012). Cyber Attacks: Protecting National Infrastructure, STUDENT EDITION. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier.
Department of Homeland Security. (2009). Efforts to identify critical infrastructure assets and systems (OIG-09-86). Retrieved from Office of Inspector General website: https://www.oig.dhs.gov/assets/Mgmt/OIG_09-86_Jun09.pdf
PG Environmental. (2017). Asset Management Programs for Stormwater and Wastewater Systems: Overcoming Barriers to Development and Implementation. Retrieved from https://www3.epa.gov/region9/water/npdes/asset-mgmnt/pdf/Overcoming-Barriers-to-Development-and-Implementation-of-Asset-Management-Plans.pdf
Critical Infrastructure Asset Management
Asset management is crucial, and critical infrastructure such as pavement and stormwater management facilities require a lot of resources to build and maintain. Therefore, the asset management process involves a lot of data collection over a certain period (Flintsch & Bryant, 2006). The data collected will require a lot of time to analyze and make the necessary changes. In this case, the best method of data collection to provide substantial information in multiple data sources. Collecting data from various sources to be used for critical infrastructure involves various processes and technologies. These methods include manual or natural observation, automated, semi-automated, and remote collection. Nonetheless of the technique implemented, there is need for a quality assurance database to access the reliability of data collected and the success of the process. Without such a program, it will be challenging to differentiate vital data from unnecessary data making it challenging to make relevant changes.
Manual data collection may involve two or more individuals working together and collecting data with a calculating gadget. The gathered data is either recorded with paper and pen or with handheld computer devices (Chou, Tseng & Ho, 2009). The data collectors can move from one location to another, inspect the variables, and record the prevailing conditions of the considered assets. Although manual data collection allows for the collection of detailed information, the process is labor-intensive and time-consuming. On the other hand, automated data collection method allows the use automobiles equipped with environment analysis software and devices such as gyroscopes and video cameras among others to capture, record and process the collected data. Automation as a method of data collection can achieve high accuracy and automation making the data collection process fast and straightforward, and importantly, the process requires minimal personnel. Also, the data collected from automated collection methods will require post-processing.
The other multiple data source method is semiautomated collection. This method incorporates both manual data collectors and automated equipment similar to automated data collection methods but with a decreased degree of automation (Citro, 2014). The semiautomated method can be beneficial for pavement and stormwater management since the process can yield accurate and comprehensive data. However, to achieve those results, the process needs to be accurately implemented, and experienced data collectors are required. Lastly, remote collection involves the use of remote sensing devices such as satellite imagery. The data collection method acquires high-resolution images through satellites and other related devices. In return, these imageries are used together with data collected in the ground to identify the location of pavement and stormwater facilities and enable the asset condition to be assessed.
With that said, I clearly understand that data collection for critical infrastructure assets can be used for various purposes, such as to test reliability, monitor performance, for inventory and inspection. Also, I learned that the regularity of data collection will always vary according to its intended purpose. That is, method of data gathering rate depends on the asset condition, asset type, and location of asset, among other factors (Flintsch & Bryant, 2006). Keeping that in mind, data collection methods can be applied to enhance the decision-making process in scenarios where there is lack of enough data. These methods can be used to provide the required information. With enhanced decision-making process, critical infrastructure managers can adequately allocate resources, optimize asset management, and, importantly, facilitate the selection of alternative asset management implementation methods. However, the relevance of the required information and the type of process used for data collection need to have a definite relation to the various stages of decision making since different decision-making stages have diverse emphases.
Chou, C. C., Tseng, S. M., & Ho, T. W. (2009). Data collection and analysis of critical infrastructure interdependency relationships. In Computing in Civil Engineering (2009) (pp. 280-289).
Citro, C. F. (2014). From multiple modes for surveys to multiple data sources for estimates. Survey Methodology, 40(2), 137-161.
Flintsch, G. W., & Bryant, J. J. (2006). Asset management data collection for supporting decision processes. Federal Highway Administration.
Critical Infrastructure Data Collection
Critical infrastructure structures such as pavements and stormwater management, indirectly improve the overall welfare of society members (Newbill, 2019). However, such infrastructure facilities are usually resource-intensive. Therefore, there is a need for a thorough analysis of various factors influencing the establishment of these structures to avoid operational inefficiencies and also losses. Therefore, to collect data about the multiple factors which influence the sustainability of the critical infrastructure facilities such as pavements and stormwater management facilities, multiple data sources would be assessed (Newbill, 2019). Therefore, multiple source data collection would be the best type of critical infrastructure data collection that would be used when collecting data about pavements and stormwater management facilities. Having a large pool of data from multiple sources would enable the agency collecting data to understand how various factors are correlated to infrastructures such as pavements and stormwater management facilities, as well as how these factors influence the establishment of these critical infrastructures (Curt & Tacnet, 2018).
However, some of the crucial data that would need to be collected to ensure the sustainability of pavements and stormwater management facilities projects would include risk data. Every infrastructure project is subject to certain risks and threats. Therefore, it is crucial to collect data about the various risks which would affect would affect pavement facilities such as roads and sidewalks and also stormwater management facilities to formulate effective countermeasures (Luskova & Dvorak, 2019). Through effective countermeasures, the overall efficiency of these infrastructures would be improved, leading to better societal welfare. The other crucial data that would be collected regarding pavement facilities is supply chain data. It is important to understand various supply chain aspects, including the type of materials required to construct pavements, who are the best suppliers and also what prices they are charged (Newbill, 2019). With this knowledge, construction would timely and effectively be done, thus improving the sustainability of pavements.
Further, it is also important to collect data and understand the various laws and regulations governing the construction of pavements as well as stormwater management facilities. Data about the laws and regulations related to the two infrastructures would help to shape the processes of constructing these facilities to avoid violating them, which may bring about inefficiencies such as fines (Curt & Tacnet, 2018). Conclusively, it would also be vital to collect sensor data in order to understand various aspects of a storm, such as its patterns, intensity, probable time of occurrence, which influence the construction of stormwater facilities (Sun et al., 2019). With sensor data in hand, the predictability of the storm occurrence would be understood and this would be vital in understanding which areas require more stormwater facilities and also when they should be established. Therefore, it is essential to have multiple sources of data when dealing with critical infrastructures since individuals get a better understanding of how these infrastructures are correlated to various factors.
Curt, C., & Tacnet, J. (2018). Resilience of Critical Infrastructures: Review and Analysis of Current Approaches. Risk Analysis: An International Journal, 38(11), 2441â€“2458.
Luskova, M & Dvorak, Z. (2019). Applying Risk Management Process in Critical Infrastructure Protection. Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems, (1), 7.
Newbill, C. M. (2019). Defining Critical Infrastructure for a Global Application. Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, (Issue 2), 761.
Sun, L., Stojadinovic, B., & Sansavini, G. (2019). Resilience Evaluation Framework for Integrated Critical Infrastructure-Community Systems under Seismic Hazard.
Stormwater management is essential for any country as it will reduce the runoff of the rain water into the streets, sites, and lawns and the water facilities will be devoid of quality. When this stormwater is absorbed into the earth, it will be filtered and then will be replenished with the aquifers or just flows into the rivers and streams. But when the rainwater actually hits the earth, it will get saturated by the water that is of excess moisture and will flow across the earthâ€™s surface and finally into the road ditches and sewers. This water will carry out bacteria, pollutants, chemicals, debris, and the eroded soil that is harmful for the human survival (eecenvironmental.com, 2019).
The urban cities should develop the stormwater management system that will prevent the precipitation of the naturally soaking into the ground. They should detain the stormwater and the pollutants should be removed as the primary job. The surfaces that are porous and can allow the water to soak into the soil like the gutters, conventional piped drainage, culverts, blue/green infrastructure project, storm sewers, and natural water cycle plants should be installed at as many places as possible. Others should be educated about the rainwater absorption techniques and implement the other best practices of water management that can reduce the runoff of the stormwater into the streets (Stauffer, 2019).
The successful implementation of the stormwater management and the pavement facilities would bring up the clear understanding of the permit needs and the solid teamwork that is essential in the people. The support of the industries and the citizens will definitely come in compliance with the requirements and the implementation of the programs that could develop the multiple facilities to avoid the unwanted stoppage on streets. The decision making bodies should be considering the various levels and should sort out the issues that are related to the funding allocation (Stauffer, 2019).
eecenvironmental.com. (2019). What is Stormwater Management and Why Is It Important? Retrieved from, https://www.eecenvironmental.com/what-is-stormwater-management/
Stauffer, B. (2019). Stromwater Management. Retrieved from, https://sswm.info/water-nutrient-cycle/wastewater-treatment/hardwares/semi-centralised-wastewater-treatments/stormwater-management