PLEASE WRITE AN ESSAY ONLY USING PLATOS REPUBLIC AS A SOURCE. answer the following question and use the guide.The essay should be typed, double spaced, times new roman 12 font, and it should not exceed eight (8) pages and should not be less than 7 pages. You are encouraged to draw examples from all relevant texts. As always, your work must be your own. PLEASE DO NOT PLAGARIZE.
In order to succeed (get a good grade) you must demonstrate that you have read and engaged the actual text. What does this mean? You can demonstrate that you have read the texts by quoting (sparingly) from important passages (and citing the page number), referencing parts of the texts not covered in the videos (when appropriate) to make insightful observations, and by demonstrating a general familiarity with them.
Platoâ€™s Republicis often called the â€œsecond apologyâ€ of Socrates. By â€œapologyâ€ is meant defense, and not an admission of error or expression of regret (or, if one considers an ironical reading, it could be seen as both a defense, and an expression of regret). Explain why the Republicis the true â€œdefenseâ€ of Socrates and philosophy; and explain what this â€œdefenseâ€ indicates about Platoâ€™s conception of human nature and politics.
The Republicis called the â€œSecond Defenseâ€ of Philosophy because it is Platoâ€™s final account of the relationship between philosophy and the city. There are several things to consider:
What, generally speaking, are Platoâ€™s final thoughts on the relationship between Philosophy and the City?
Why does he come to these conclusions?
Despite Platoâ€™s pessimism, if there is going to be a relationship between Philosophy and Politics, some accommodation between Philosophy and Politics must be made. What is the nature of this compromise, and why does it emerge?
Once the compromise between Philosophy and Politics is made, Socrates and his colleagues agree to search for â€œJusticeâ€ in both the individual and the City. Agreeing that a City is â€œbiggerâ€ than an individual, they undertake the famous, perhaps ironical, creation of the most â€˜Justâ€ City ever conceivedâ€”The Republic.
In their pursuit of â€œJusticeâ€ they create the healthy city. What is the nature of this healthy city? How does it come into being? Why is it healthy? What does this reveal about Platoâ€™s theory of human nature and politics. Why is this important?
Sadly, the healthy city is not sufficient for Glaucon and others. Why? What does this reveal about human nature? Why does Plato call this a â€œfeverishâ€ city? What does this mean for human beings and politics? Why is this important?
Once the â€œfeverishâ€ city comes-into-being we are faced with many challengesâ€”both individually and politically. What are these challenges? What does the emergence of the â€œfeverishâ€ city have to do with war and the creation of the Guardian class? Why is this important?
The need for the Guardians initiates the need for â€˜Noble Lies.â€ Why? What makes the â€œNoble Liesâ€ noble? What does this further reveal about Platoâ€™s conception of human nature and our capacity for â€œJusticeâ€?
The Guardians must be â€œeducated.â€ What is the nature of their â€œeducationâ€? Why does Plato think they must be â€œeducatedâ€ this way? What does this say about Platoâ€™s conception of human nature and individual justice?
What is the Myth of the Metals? What is the purpose of the Myth? Why is this Myth important? What does it reveal about politics?
In addition to the â€œeducationâ€ of the Guardians, Plato is specific about how and where they live. What are the â€œlivingâ€ conditions of the Guardians? Why does Plato do this to them? Why is this important? You will find Platoâ€™s discussion of the â€œlivingâ€ conditions of the Guardians in Book V.
In Book IV, and other places, Plato discusses Justice and begins to discuss the role of Philosopher-Kings. (Plato will return for a more elaborate discussion of Philosopher-Kings in Books VI and VII). What is Platoâ€™s conception of Justice? Why is it Just? Why is this important?
Why do the Philosopher-Kings rule? What is it that they â€œknowâ€ that justifies their power?
Last, on page 128, Plato writes, â€œIts not easy to go through happy man . . . Even more than what we went through before, it (the city) admits of many doubts. For, it could be doubted that the things said are possible; and, even if, in the best possible conditions, they could come into being, that they would be what is best might also be doubted. So that is why there is a certain hesitation about getting involved in it, for fear that the argument might seem to be a prayer . . . â€œ
What does this say about Platoâ€™s conception of the relationship between Philosophy and the City?